PCCS Books: Formatting notes for authors
PCCS Books: Notes for authors
The purpose of these notes
In order for your book to be published as quickly and painlessly as possible it will be helpful if you follow the instructions laid out in this booklet. Editors of books with several contributors should ensure that all authors are given copies of this booklet and specific instructions for the volume to which they are contributing.
By producing a well-organised typescript, you will be making a significant contribution to the production of your book.
Presentation and organisation of the typescript
We prefer you to supply your typescript in Word as an email attachment. We prefer you not to implement a complicated layout design or any formatting: in fact, the simpler the presentation of your text, the better. And since it will be typeset from your own keystrokes, there will be fewer errors in your proofs.
Point size and hyphens
We prefer you to use 12-point Times New Roman. Please avoid word divisions at the ends of lines (turn off hyphenation). Use left-justified mode.
This should include title-page, dedication (if any), contents, preface, acknowledgements, list of abbreviations, figures, tables and so on.
The title page should carry the exact final wording of the title (and subtitle, if any) and your name, as author or editor, in the form you wish it to be used.
A foreword is written by someone other than the author or editor.
A preface is a piece written by the author explaining how the book came to be written, or as a brief apologia. A longer, detailed analysis of the subjects to be covered in the book should be treated as an introduction.
Acknowledgements may include thanks to professional bodies, colleagues, and personal friends and helpers. Where photographs are to be used in the book, include credits to the sources on the acknowledgements page. Where permissions have been granted for the use of copyright materia from other works, include them here as well.
The contents page must agree in wording and capitalisation with the chapter headings in the text.
Plates, figures and tables can be listed in the prelim pages if you think this will be useful to the reader, but this is not essential.
This can include appendices, notes, bibliography and index (in this order).
Appendices usually comprise material which is too detailed to be included in the main text without unbalancing the book, but which is of use to some readers.
The reference section is a list of all works cited in the text; a bibliography can be merely suggested further reading. All publication details should be included: that is, author’s or editor’s name, including initials; book or article title; journal title; volume number; place of publication; publisher; and page numbers for journal articles or chapters (see References / Bibliography p. 5).
Index This is not prepared until proof stage, but it would be helpful if you could prepare a list of subjects to be included.
Please keep your text layout simple. The most important point of style is to be consistent throughout your text: i.e., use the same spacing between words, headings, paragraphs, etc. throughout. If you wish to retain space between paragraphs to indicate a section break, indicate this clearly on the typescript.
Subheadings should be used sparingly. If you use sub-subheadings, please indicate clearly their degree of importance. We often use bold for subheadings level 1, bold and italic for subheadings level 2 and italics for subheadings level 3. The subheadings would appear thus:
Bold for subheadings level 1
Bold italics for subheadings level 2
Italics for subheadings level 3
Avoid using more than three degrees of subheadings, as this leads to difficulties in setting and is confusing for the reader. Avoid numbering subheadings unless extensive cross-referencing is essential to the book.
Do not centre headings; use line spaces: two above and one below headings, and the minimum of stylistic features to indicate different levels of headings.
Justification of text and new paragraphs
Avoid justifying text for the right margin as there is a risk that hyphenation at the end of justified lines of text will eventually appear in proofs. Justify your text only to the left margin (i.e. so that hyphens appear only where you have inserted them). Do not insert hard returns at the end of every line, but do insert two hard returns at the end of paragraphs if they are not indented.
Chapters should begin on a new page.
Paragraphs Always use ‘tab’ for indenting the first line of a paragraph, if the are not indicated by a line space above.
Indented extracts Quoted material of over forty words in length will be set out from the text by being indented a consistent number of spaces from the left margin. In order that we clearly see these quotations, we would ask you to indicate them to us clearly as shown below:
Ordinary text. Ordinary text. Ordinary text. Ordinary text. Ordinary text. Ordinary text. Ordinary text. Ordinary text. Ordinary text. Ordinary text. Ordinary text, Ordinary text. Ordinary text.
Quoted material of over forty words in length will be set out from the text by being indented a consistent distance from the left margin, with a line space below. Quoted material of over forty words in length will be set out from the text by being indented a consistent number of spaces from the left margin, with a line space below. (Source, year: page number/s)
Ordinary text. Ordinary text. Ordinary text. Ordinary text. Ordinary text. Ordinary text. Ordinary text Ordinary text. Ordinary text. Ordinary text. Ordinary text. Ordinary text.
The exact spelling and punctuation of the original must be faithfully copied. Indented quotations should not have quotation marks, unless they report conversation. Your own interpolations into quoted matter should be clearly enclosed in square brackets, not round ones. Display source lines within round brackets (parentheses).
Use a single (not a double) space after a full point, and after commas, colons, semicolons, etc. Do not put a space in front of a question mark, or in front of any other closing quotation mark.
An en rule is longer than a hyphen and should be used to replace ‘to’ in number spans, e.g. ‘24–8’. It should also be used to link two items of equal weight, as in ‘Conservative–Liberal Democrat alliance’. If you have a standard keypad you can insert an en rule by holding down the ‘Alt’ key and typing 0150 on the number pad to the right of the keyboard (not the numbers above the letters). However, some laptops don’t have this number pad in which case type a double hyphen to indicate that an en rule is required, e.g. 24--8, Conservative--Liberal Democrat alliance. The typesetter can then change all double hyphens to en rules by making one global command.
We also use ‘spaced En rules’ as parenthetical dashes. An example would be ‘Unless the parenthetical phrase is at the end of a sentence, check that there is a pair of dashes – not one or three – and that the second one is correctly placed.’ Thus: ‘space’ ‘Alt0150’ ‘space’.
If following British style always use single quotation marks for dialogue and quoted material in the text. Reserve the use of double quotation marks for quotes within quotes, e.g. ‘Edward found the trappings of “royalty” hung heavily.’ If you are an American author, you should follow American style and use double quotation marks for quoted material in the text, with single quotation marks for quotes within quotes, e.g. “Edward found the trappings of ‘royalty’ hung heavily.” Please note that if you are using American punctuation, commas and full stops fall inside the quotation marks, whether or not they are a part of the quotation, e.g. “He called it ‘my house,’ even though it belonged to Clara.” In British style the full stop only falls inside the quotation mark if the material quoted is a complete sentence.
Be consistent. We prefer spellings to conform to the new edition of the Concise Oxford English Dictionary, but will accept alternatives provided they are consistent. American spelling and punctuation should be used by American authors. If you have a spell-check facility on your program, please use it.
Keep capitalisation to a minimum. Use lower case for government, church, state, university, psychologist, volume, and so on.
Use italics for titles of books, plays, films, long poems, newspapers, journals (but not articles in journals). The extensive use of italics for emphasis should be avoided. Do not use bold except in headings.
Use full stops after abbreviations (p., ch.) but not after contractions or in acronyms: Dr, St, BBC, UNESCO, USA.
Spell out numbers under 10. Use numerals for measurements, e.g. 12 km, and ages, e.g. 8 years old. Do not use the percentage sign (%) except in tables and figures, but use a numeral for the number, e.g. 24 per cent. Insert a comma for both thousands and tens of thousands, e.g., 1,000 and 10,000. Use minimum numbers for page spans, e.g., 25–8; 136–42, 150–1, but 12–16. Be careful to use the numeral keys on your keyboard for 1 (one) and 0 (zero), and not a lowercase ‘l’ or an upper case‘O’.
Set dates out as follows: 8 July 1980, on 8 July, on the 8th; 1980s (not spelt out, no apostrophe); nineteenth century (not 19th century); 1985–6, 1914–18.
Notes and references
Place all footnotes/endnotes at the end of each chapter, after the references (if each chapter is referenced). Begin numbering from 1 for every chapter. Indicate notes in the text by superscript figures outside the punctuation, thus.4
Please do not use your computer’s footnote function; but if your computer is able to create endnotes, use this facility. Please use superscript note numbers. When typeset, footnotes will usually be relocated to the bottom of the relevant page.
Restrict notes to explanatory statements that develop an idea or expand a quotation, where to do so in the text would disturb the balance. When giving references, we prefer you to use our variation of the Harvard (author/date) system.
Our referencing system
This is a simple referencing system which is easy to use for author and reader, and we strongly recommend it. If you use this system, you cite the author’s surname, the year of publication, and the page reference immediately after the quoted material, e.g. ‘When some form of organization, other than authoritarian, flourishes and succeeds, it challenges a way of being that is deeply rooted in our society’ (Rogers, 1983: 245). With this system it is essential that the bibliography lists every work cited by you in the text. Where there are two or more works by one author in the same year, distinguish them as 1988a, 1988b, etc.
If you are using the our system of referencing, type entries in the following order:
Rogers, CR (1983) Freedom to Learn for the 80s. Colombus, OH: Charles E Merrill.
Prepare the entries double-spaced in strict alphabetical order. Treat M’, Mc, and Mac all as Mac.
Check dates carefully for consistency with text references to avoid time-consuming queries at copy-editing stage.
Arrange books and articles by a single author in date order. Next list books by this author written with one other person, arranged alphabetically by second author. Finally list titles by this author with two or more others in order of date, as these will all be cited as e.g. Argyle et al. (1988) in the text. Check whether you need to distinguish any of them by using 1988a, 1988b, etc. Two authors with the same surname usually need their initials in the text for clarity.
The example below shows how to deal with sources such as unpublished theses and papers given to conferences. Book and journal titles will be printed in italics, with main words in the title having capitals. The subtitle will follow the title, preceded by a colon and only the first initial will be capitalised. Please use the italic function, and do not use bold.
If you are using law reports, parliamentary papers, etc. please be especially careful with consistency. For government reports use the name of the government department if there is no obvious author; do not use HMSO. If you think it will be helpful to the reader, list manuscript sources separately from published works.
Examples of references
Barrett-Lennard, GT (1979) The client-centered system unfolding. In FJ Turner (Ed), Social Work Treatment:
Interlocking theoretical approaches (2nd ed) (pp. 177–241). New York: Free Press.
Barrett-Lennard, GT (1994) Toward a person-centered theory of community. Journal of Humanistic Psychology,
Brodley, B (1996) Carl Rogers’ note on congruence. Presentation at 11th Annual Conference of the Association
for the Development of the Person-Centered Approach. May, Kutztown, PA, USA.
Covner, BJ (1944a) Studies in phonographic recording of verbal material: III. The completeness and accuracy
of counseling interview reports. Journal of General Psychology, 30, 181–203.
Covner, BJ (1944b) Studies in phonographic recording of verbal material: IV. Written reports of interviews.
Journal of Applied Psychology, 28, 89–98.
Greenberg, L, Elliot, R & Lietaer, G (1994) Research on experiential psychotherapies. In AE Bergin & SL Garfield
(Eds) Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behavior Change (pp. 509–39). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Hock, CL (1950) The nature of the group process in non-directive group psychotherapy. Unpublished doctoral
thesis, Columbia University Teachers College.
Kilmann, PR & Howell, RJ (1974) Effects of structure of marathon group therapy and locus of control on
therapeutic outcome. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42, 912.
Kilmann, PR, Albert, HM & Sotile, WM (1975) The relationship between locus of control, structure of therapy, and
outcome. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43, 588.
Kirschenbaum, H (1979) On Becoming Carl Rogers. New York: Delacorte.